Mammedguluzadeh Jalil Mammedgulu
(his pen0name is Molla Nasreddin; 22.2.1869, Nakhchivan city –
4.1.1932, Baku) – a writer, dramatist, journalist, social
officer. He got first education at religious school and later at
three-class school in Nakhchivan. He graduated from Gory
Teachers Seminary in 1887 and worked as a teacher in Ulukhanli
village of Iravan province and the villages of Bash Norashen
(present Jalikand in Sharur region) and Nehram in Nakhchivan
(1887-97). The working years as a teacher in the villages
supplied a lot of materials for the writer. “Chay Desgahi” (“Tea
Set”) allegoric dram in verse, written in 1889, is one of his
first works. He wrote a lot of small stories, “Kishmish oyunu”
(“Currants game”) comedy and “Danabash kendinin ehvalatlari”
(“Stories of Danabash village”) narrative, which was published
in 1894 and 1936, are also written in that period.
Since 1903 he had worked at the editorial office of “The
Shargi-Rus” newspaper published in Tbilisi. “The Shargi-Rus”
newspaper and its editor M.A.Shahtakhtli played a great role in
the experience of J. Mammedgulu-zadeh to become a professional
writer and pressman. His “Pocht qutusu” (“Post box”) first
printed work, the stories of “Kishmish oyunu” (“Currants game”)
and “Labor, death and illness”, which he translated from L.N.
Tolstoy were published in this newspaper for the first time.
He began to issue “Molla Nasraddin” magazine, the first
edition was issued on the 7th (20th) of April 1906,
and with this he founded the satiric journalism in Azerbaijan as
well as in the Turkish-Muslim world. Since that time he became
famous with the name of Molla Nasraddin. Very close
ideal-creative relations were established with the writers and
pressmen, such as M.A.Sabir, N.Narimanov, A.Haqverdiyev,
M.S.Ordubadi, O.F.Nemanzadeh, Ali Nazmi, A.Gamkusar etc. J.
Mammedguluzadeh’s propagation on democracy and ideas of liberty
won the national respect and international attraction towards
the magazine. The tsar government called him to account very
often, made investigations in “Geyret” printing house and
sometimes even stopped the issuance of “Molla Nasreddin”.
On June in 1920 J.Mammedgulu-zadeh moved to Tabriz with his
family and printed 8 editions of “Molla Nasreddin” there in
J.Mammedguluzadeh’s works were translated to a lot of languages.
J.Mammedguluzadeh’s name was given to many streets and
cultural-educational institutions (State Musical Dram Theatre of
Nakhchivan and Nakhchivan State Museum of Literature). For his
honor the past Astrakhan regions and city was renamed Jalilabad
in 1967 and Bash Norashen village, where he worked as a teacher,
became Jalilkand. His monument was erected in Nakhchivan and
Jalilabad. The memorial-houses were opened in Baku and
Nakhchivan and memorial museums in Nehram and Jalilkand. His
100-125 years anniversary was ceremonially celebrated.
The recent years academician I.Habibeyli contacted with the
descendants of the writer, who lives in different places
(France, Poland and Iran).