Nasreddin Tusi Mohammad ibn Mohammad ibn Hasan.
(17.2.1201, Tus – 25.6.1274, Baghdad) – an encyclopedic
scientist, philosopher, socio-political figure. Tusi is his pen
name and Nasreddin (defender of religion) is his alias. Abu
Abdulla or Abu Jafar was also known instead of the world
Mohammad. He was called Khaja (Mister) and also Movla at the
same meaning. He got his first education from his father and
uncle and later learned the different fields of the humanities
and exact sciences in Khorasan. Muinaddin Salim Misri gave
Nasreddin Tusi permission to recite had its on the 30th
of June in 1222.
Nasreddin Tusi went to Isfahan with the invitation of Nasiraddin
Mohtasham, Kuhistan ruler from Ismailis leaders and was welcomed
there with respect. But because of a disagreement Nasreddin Tsui
began to lose the trust toward him and he was even imprisoned
for a while in Alamut castle. Hulaki king released Nasreddin
Tusi in 1256 when he put an end to Ismailis dominion and hired
Nasreddin an advisor for himself. During the conquest of Baghdad
the scientist was famous with his ideas and took care of people,
especially the intellectuals and could save them. About 500
families that left Maragha and Tabriz could return to their
motherlands with his help.
One of his main duties is to create Maragha Observatory
in the history of science and art of the world in 1259. He
assembled more than 100 representatives of different nations
here and created good condition for them to work. At religious
school attached to the observatory all the fields of science,
religion, philosophy and social-political sciences were taught.
The school had a library with more than 400 thousand editions.
During his visit to Baghdad Nasraddin Tusi died and he was
buried in Kazimeyn city, near Baghdad according to his will. The
interesting thing is that the tomb that he was buried was built
for caliph Nasir-li-Dinillah 75 years, 7 months and 7
days ago but because of some reasons the place was kept empty.
Nasraddin Tusi’s three sons – Sadraddin Ali, Asiladadin
Hasan and Fakhraddin Ahmad chose the way of science and at the
same time worked in the official bodies. Avhadi Maraghayi
(1274-1338) devoted his “Dehname” distich (1306) to Nasraddin
Tusi’s grandchild Khaja Ziyaaddin Yusif ibn Asiladdin Hasan.
Nasraddin Tusi’s descendants later lived in Nakhchivan and
became famous in the spheres of science, literature and art. The
decree of the I Shah Abbas (1587-1629) is scraped in the
inscription on the gates of big Jume mosque in Ordubad in XVII
century that Nasraddin Tusi’s generation lived in Ordubad and
therefore the I Shah Abbas released the region from all taxes.
Nasraddin Tusi’s outlook is largely described in his
treaties on theology, philosophy, politics and ethics. In
thinker’s “Treaties about imamism (religious title)” (“Risab
fi-l-imama”) belonging to the Shiite trend, and other works he
emphasized not only twelve imams but generally the
characteristic qualities of an imam (leader). In his “Jabr ve
qadr” (“Algebra and value”) treaties accepts willing freedom.
Shiites as well as Sunnis used the thinker’s works, which were
far from sect fanaticism.