Nakhchivan has been the place of many great thinkers, scientists and craftsmen

    Haydar Aliyev
    Aliyev Ilham
    Zarifa Aliyeva
    Ajami Nakhchivani
    Nakhchivani Najmaddin
    Nakhchivani Hindushah
    Nasreddin Tusi
    Nakhchivani Mohammad
    Fazlullah Naimi
    Aliyev Hasan
    Mammedaliyev Yusif
    Abdullayev Hasan
    Kangarli Heydarqulu
    Nakhchivansky Ismail
    Nakhchivansky Huseyn
    Nakhchivansky Jamshid
  Mohammed Shahtakhtinsky
    Shahtakhtinsky Behbud
    Mohammed Taghi Sidgi
    Jalil Mammedguluzadeh
    Huseyn Javid
    Ordubadi Mammed Said
    Kangarli Behruz

                                                                                                                          Haydar Aliyev


Nakhchivani Mohammad ibn Hidushah   


     Nakhchivani Mohammad ibn Hindushah ibn Sanjar ibn Abdullah al-Girani an-Nakhchivani (approximately 1293, Nakhchivan - 1376) – a scientist, statesman, confessor. He belongs to the famous scientists’ generation and continued his father’s way, Hindushah Nakhchivani. He got excellent education, had good command of Arabic, Farsi and Turkish languages and learned the different sciences of that time. During the 20th of the XIV century he came to Tabriz and worked in the financial section of Hulakis palace. He worked as a secretary and art person of Qiyasaddin Mohammad Rashidi, who was the son of F. Rashidadin and the grand vizier afterwards and got the pseudonym “Shamsi munshi an-Nakhchivani” for his abilities. He got acquainted with the ruler of Elkhani, Sultan Abu Said Bahadir khan (1316-1335) with the help of Qiyasaddin Mohammad Rashidi and began to write a special work dedicated to the state ruing and construction system, but he could finish it after many years (1366). The second part of his life coincides with the ruling of Chobanis and Jalaris in Azerbaijan. These years he became famous on religious issues and even for a while as a head confessor of the state during Jalaris dynasty. Nakhchivani’s social-political views are same with those of Nizam al-mulk, Rashidaddin and his son Qiyasaddin, as well as Vessaf, Hamdullah Qazvi and other outstanding thinkers. As his ancestors he supported the monarchy system and centralized strong government in the state system. Two works from his scientific collection survived till the present time. “Sihah al-fors”, completed in 1328, is a dictionary of 2300 words used in Farsi language and the explanation of phrases. The work consists of the author’s introduction, 25 parts and 431 chapters. The author used the experience of his ancestors and a lot of other materials of other languages like Azerbaijan and Turkish languages in the explanation of Farsi words. There are ethnographic materials indicating the living conditions of Azerbaijani people. Here you can see the pieces of poems of a lot of masters, as well as his father Hindushah Nakhchivani. The author also gives an explanation to the lexicology and phonetics of the Farsi language. The following years the dictionary compilers used this work as a source. The copies of 4 his manuscripts are known. A.Taati in Tehran published them in 1962.

       His second work dedicated to Sheikh Uveys, the ruler of Jalaris and completed in 1366, is “Dastur al-katib fi tayin al-maratib” (“The Instructions for the secretaries to determine the degrees”), consisting of two parts. Here the examples of official documents are attached. But these were not only as an example, but also reflected a lot of real facts about the socio-economic, political, cultural and religious life of that period. The work covers the information about the forms of land property, the rules of land use, taxes and obligations, military construction, military and religious courts, urban life, mastership and trade, the problems of sedentary and nomad agriculture, the miserable condition of the people and their struggle, the explanation of the all positions of feudal hierarchy and about a lot of scientists, statesmen, masters and so on. In his explanation of the position appointments of the ruling system of those times, he cited the factual documents as an example. Here he mentions the names of real historical figures and places. More than 100 historical terms are indicated and the author gives explanation to some of them. The work is estimated on the same level of Nizam al-mulk’s “Siyasatname”, Rashidadin’s “Jami at-tavarikh” and many other works. The copies of his 6 manuscripts are kept in the world libraries. Their scientific-critical text is prepared by academician A.A.Alizadeh (on the basis of the copies of all manuscripts) and was published in 2 editions in Moscow during 1964-1976.